Climates range from tropical at the base of the mountains to perennial snow and ice at the highest elevations.
These complex and diverse eco-regions are interconnected: an ecological threat to one is ultimately a threat to many.
The dominant tree types are pine, hemlock, spruce, and fir.
Animals found in this region include red pandas, takins, and musk deer. in the eastern region are broadleaf and coniferous forests.
Highest peak: Mount Everest at 29,029 ft (8,848 m) is not only the highest peak in the Himalayas, but the highest peak on the entire planet.
Other famous peaks include Karakora (K2), Kailash, Kanchenjunga, Nanga Parbat, Annapurna, and Manasklu.
Wildlife includes many threatened species including tigers and Asian elephants.
More than 340 different species of birds can be found in this region.
Glaciers: The Himalayas are the third largest deposit of ice and snow in the world, after Antarctica and the Arctic.
There are approximately 15,000 glaciers located throughout the range.
At 48 miles (72 km) in length, the Himalayan Siachen glacier is the largest glacier outside the poles.
In the northeast, temperate sub-alpine conifer forests are found at elevations of 8,200 to 13,800 ft.
Located in the inner valley area, these forests are protected from harsh monsoon conditions by surrounding mountain ranges.